Cell Type
Basic Type
Anode Material
Cathode Material
Main Electrolyte
Material
Volts per
Cell
Advantages & Applications
Disadvantages
Car Battery
(Lead Acid)
S
Lead
Lead Dioxide
Sulfuric Acid
2
  • Low Cost
  • Spill Resistant (sealed batteries)
  • Useful for Automobiles,
  • Used in cordless electric lawn mowers
  • Limited low-temperature performance.  
  • Vented cells require maintenance.  
  • Cells are relatively heavy.
Ni-Cd
Nickel Cadmium
S
Cadmium
Nickel hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
1.25
  • Excellent cycle life
  • Flat discharge curve
  • good high and low temperature
    performance
  • High resistance to shock and vibration
  • Useful for small appliances that have
    intermittent usage, such as walkie-
    talkies, portable hand tools, tape players
    and toys.
  • When batteries are exhausted they can
    be recharged before the next needed
    use.
  • High initial cost
  • Only fair charge retention
  • Memory effect
Ni-MH
Nickel-Metal Hydride
S
Hydrogen
storage metal
Nickel oxide
Potassium hydroxide
1.5
  • No memory effects (such as Ni-Cd)
  • Good high-power performance
  • Good low-temperature performance
  • Useful for portable devices where the
    duty cycle varies from use to use.
  • High initial cost
  • Relatively high rate of self-discharge
Zinc-Air
P
Zinc
Oxygen
Potassium hydroxide
1.25
  • High energy density in small cells
  • Flat discharge rate
  • Dries out quickly
Lithium
P
Lithium
Iron Sulfide
Lithium salts in ether
1.0 - 3.6
  • Good energy density
  • Limited high-rate capacities
  • Safety concerns
  P = Primary
S = Secondary
(Rechargeable)
           
Battery Chemistry
Open-
Circuit
Voltage (vpc)
Features
Advantages
Disadvantages
System
Costs
($/kWh)
Flooded Lead-Acid (FLA)
2.0
Readily Available
  • Low System Costs
  • Excellent Recycling
  • Low Energy Density
  • Sulfation
100-200


2.0
2.0
Sealed / Non-Spillable

Readily Available
Readily Available
Low System Cost / Excellent Recycling

High-Rate Discharge for UPS Applications
Deep Discharge Recovery; Thermal Stability
Higher Cost than FLA

Low Energy Density / Sulfation
Low Energy Density / Sulfation

200-300
150-250
Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd)
1.2
Resistance to Deep
Discharge
  • Fast Charge / High Rate Discharge
  • Toxic Cadmium
500-600
Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH)
1.2
Resistance to Deep
Discharge
  • Low DOD / No Toxic Cadmium
  • High Self-Discharge Rte / Short Float Life
700-800
Nickel-Zinc (NiZn)
1.5-1.7
Resistance to Deep
Discharge
  • Fast Charge / No Toxic Cadmium
  • High Self-Discharge
  • Less-Proven Technology
500-600
Lithium Ion (Li-I)
2.1-5.0
Flat Discharge Curve -
Useful to 80% DOD
High Energy Density
  • High Battery Cost / High System Cost
1000-2000
Lithium Polymer (Li-P)
2.1-4.0
Flat Discharge Curve -
Useful to 80% DOD
High Energy Density
  • Short Cycle Life / Less-Proven Technology
1500-2500
Metal-Air (Zn-Air,Al-Air)
1.15-1.5
Long Shelf Life
High Energy Density
  • Short Cycle Life / Less-Proven Technology
100-500
    High-Temperature Batteries
  • Sodium-Sulfur (Na-S) 350C)
  • Zebra Battery (Na-NiCl) (270C)

2.1
2.6
Long Shelf Life
High Energy Density
High-Temperature Operation
Less Proven Technology
1000-3000
500-2000
Source:  Solar Industry Magazine February 2011
www.millenniumplanet.com